Egyptian Medicine

Natural Medical:Medical information contained in the Edwin Smith Papyrus[2] may date to a time as early as 3000 BC. The earliest known surgery in Egypt was performed in Egypt around 2750 BC (see surgery). Imhotep in the 3rd dynasty is sometimes credited with being the founder of ancient Egyptian medicine and with being the original author of the Edwin Smith papyrus, detailing cures, ailments and anatomical observations. The Edwin Smith papyrus is regarded as a copy of several earlier works and was written circa 1600 BC. It is an ancient textbook on surgery almost completely devoid of magical thinking and describes in exquisite detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments Conversely, the Ebers papyrus is full of incantations and foul applications meant to turn away disease-causing demons, and other superstition. The Ebers papyrus also provides our earliest possible documentation of ancient awareness of tumors, but ancient medical terminology being badly understood, cases pebers 546 and 547 for instance may refer to simple swellings. The Kahun Gynaecological Papyru treats women's complaints, problems with conception. Thirty four cases detailing diagnosis and treatment survive, some of them fragmentarily Medical institutions, referred to as Houses of Life are known to have been established in ancient Egypt since as early as the 1st Dynasty. By the time of the 19th Dynasty some workers enjoyed such benefits as medical insurance, pensions and sick leave. The earliest known physician is also credited to ancient Egypt: Hesyre, “Chief of Dentists and Physicians” for King Djoser in the 27th century BC. Also, the earliest known woman physician, Peseshet, practiced in Ancient Egypt at the time of the 4th dynasty. Her title was “Lady Overseer of the Lady Physicians.” In addition to her supervisory role, Peseshet graduated midwives at an ancient Egyptian medical school in Sais.

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